Photonics is quickly moving from ground innovations towards space innovation with potential to cross-prepare various applications in the space area. Various intermingled applications include remote detecting, location search and tracking, broadcast communications and planetary investigation missions. Due to points of interest identified with data transmission, mass, control utilization, beam size and invulnerability to electromagnetic obstruction, photonic subsystems are presently being considered for route satellite frameworks, Earth perception satellites, low Earth circle (LEO) star groupings and inside telecom satellite payloads.
Laser functionality for communication from satellite to ground or between mutual satellites provides a high-speed connectivity with using less spacecraft resources like power, mass etc. Space based laser system used for high capacity networks from satellite on geostationary orbits. This allows for piggybacking proven terrestrial photonic technologies and, where required, exploiting wavelength division multiplexed technology for increasing the aggregate channel capacities. Optoelectronic components are key building blocks of satellite laser communication systems and intra-satellite links within telecom satellite payloads.
In terms of functionality, the Laser communication terminal consists of a processor, a fiber optic receiver and transmitter subsystem which further includes optical modulator, photodetector and amplifier for coding, amplifying and detecting signal at required end. The laser terminal typical performs functionality of Layer1 and Layer 2 according to traditional OSI model.